ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF THE BASHKIR LEIPZIG–JAKARTA LIST

  25 Ноябрь 2015

We sincerely thank the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation for the grant “The most resistant words of the Turkic languages”; this publication had been prepared within the framework of the research project supported by the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation № 14-04-00346.                                                                   

Innokentiy NOVGORODOV

North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk

Linara ISHKILDINA

Institute of History, Language and Literature, Ufa Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa

Аннотация: Установлено происхождение устойчивого словарного фонда башкирского языка, который восходит к лексике тюркского происхождения, но вместе с тем в нем прослеживается иноязычное влияние.

Abstract: The origin of a 100-word Leipzig–Jakarta list of Bashkir is revealed. The revealed list of Bashkir is of the Turkic origin and foreign influence is traced in it.

Ключевые слова: устойчивый словарный фонд, заимствование, тюркский, арабский, башкирский.

Keywords: the most resistant words, loan-word, languages, Turkic, Arabian, Bashkir.

As it is known the Leipzig–Jakarta list is a 100 word list to test the degree of relationship of languages by comparing words that are resistant to borrowing [4 : 68-75]. The indicated 100 most resistant words are used to establish the relationship among the Turkic languages. In this survey, we reveal the Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Bashkir language. The Bashkir language is one of the Turkic Kipchak languages spoken by the Bashkirs (1584554 people according to the latest Russian census [5]) majority of whom are living in the South Urals. The most of the Bashkirs are sunnites. The Bashkir language, along with Russian, is the official language of the Republic of Bashkortostan.

It should be mentioned that we previously came to a conclusion that the Turkic

languages are divided into two main groups [1 : 240-245; 2 : 234-239]. The first one is the Yakut and the Kipchak languages, and the second one – the Chuvash and Oghuz languages.

In this survey, the comparative method is used as the main method.

For the convenience of analysis, the Leipzig–Jakarta list was taken from open electronic sources rather than [4 : 68-65] due to the arrangement of the material in the former (e.g., the alphabetical order of vocabulary and a single lexeme for identifying each vocabulary sample).

Before presenting the Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Bashkir language, it should be noted that 1 is a number of the Leipzig–Jakarta list item; ‘ant’ – meaning; (3. 817) – index number of World loanword database, available online at http://wold.clld.org/meaning; bash. – abbreviation of the  Bashkir language; (RBS I 2005: 558)  – indication of a source and its page; kïrmïðka – form of a word; (< tu. (ESTJ 2000: 140))  – indication of a word origin,information of a source and its page.

The Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Bashkir language is presented below.

1 ‘ant’ (3. 817) bash. (RBS I 2005: 558) kïrmïðka (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 140)); 

2 ‘arm’ (4.31), ‘hand’ (4.33) bash. (RBS II 2005: 334) kul (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 37));

3 ‘ash’ (1.84) bash. (RBS I 2005: 398 köl (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 137));  

4 ‘back’ (4.19) bash. (RBS II 2005: 444) arkа (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 174));

5 ‘big’ (12.55) bash. (RBS I 2005: 98) оlо(< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 593));

6 ‘bird’ (3.581) bash. (RBS II 2005: 233) koš (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 180));

7 ‘to bite’ (4.58) bash. (RBS II 2005: 549) tešläü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 242));

8 ‘bitter’ (15.37) bash. (RBS I 2005: 244) äse, аsï(< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 :  89));

9 ‘black’ (15.65) )  bash. (RBS II 2005: 626) karа(< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 286));

10 ‘blood’ (4.15) bash. (RBS I 2005: 507) kan (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 251));

11 ‘to blow (intransitive)’ (10.38) bash. (RBS I 2005: 306) iϑeü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 553)), öröü- (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 635));

12 ‘bone’ (4.16) bash. (RBS I 2005: 496) höyäk(< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 357));

13 ‘breast’ (4.41) bash. (RBS I 2005: 252) imsäk(< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 271));

14 ‘to burn (intransitive)’ (1.852) bash. (RBS I 2005: 242) yanïu (< tu. (ESTJ 1989: 112));

15 ‘to carry’ (10.61) bash. (BRS 1996: 596) tashïu (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 170)), aparïu- (<  alïp bar- < tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 127, ESTJ, 1978 : 64));

16 ‘child (kin term)’ (2.43) bash. (RBS II 2005: 309) bala (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 47));

17 ‘to come’ (10.48) bash. (RBS II 2005: 172) kileü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 14)); 

18 ‘to crush/to grind’ (5.56) bash. (RBS I 2005:578) iðeü (< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 235));

19 ‘to cry/to weep’ (16.37) bash. (RBS II 2005: 60) ilau(< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 79)), hïktau- (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 390));

20 ‘to do/to make’ (9.11) bash. (RBS I 2005: 268) ešläü(< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 395)), iteü- (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 312));

21 ‘dog’ (3.61) bash. (RBS II 2005: 419) et (< tu.), kübäk (< tu. (ESTJ 1997: 111));

22 ‘to drink’ (5.13) bash. (RBS II 2005: 59) eseü(< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 391));

23 ‘ear’ (4.22) bash. (RBS II 2005: 574) kolak (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 124));

24 ‘to eat’ (5.11) bash. (RBS I 2005: 313) ašau (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 210)), eyeü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 333));

25 ‘egg’ (5.97) bash. (RBS II 2005: 675) yomortka (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 250));

26 ‘eye’ (4.21) bash. (RBS I 2005: 232) J(< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 60));

27 ‘to fall’ (10.23) bash. (RBS II 2005: 9) yïγïlïu (< tu. (ESTJ 1989: 273)), auïu- (< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 69));

28 ‘far (adverb)’ (12.44) bash. (RBS I 2005: 258) alïð(< mo. (Räs 1969: 17b)), yïraq ( < tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 286));

29 ‘fire’ (1.81) bash. (RBS I 2005: 741) ut (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 483)); 

30 ‘fish’ (3.65) bash. (RBS II 2005: 336) balïk (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 59));

31 ‘flesh/meat’ (4.13) bash. (RBS I 2005: 592) it (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 311));

32 ‘fly’ (3.83) bash. (RBS I 2005: 589) seben (< tu. (Räs, 1969 : 110a));

33 ‘to give’ (11.21) bash. (RBS I 2005: 257) bireü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 114));

34 ‘to go’ (10.47) bash. (RBS I 2005: 404) barïu (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 64)); (< tu.);

35 ‘good’ (16.71) bash. (RBS II 2005: 607) yakšï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 63));

36 ‘hair’ (4.14) bash. (RBS I 2005: 168) säs (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 216)); 

37 ‘hard’ (15.74) bash. (RBS II 2005: 489) katï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 334));

38 ‘he/she/it’ (2.931; 2.932; 2.933) bash. (RBS I 2005: 755) ul (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 444));

39 ‘to hear’ (15.41) bash. (RBS II 2005: 409) išeteü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 318));

40 ‘heavy’ (15.81) bash. (RBS II 2005: 529) auïr (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 85));

41 ‘to hide’ (12.27) bash. (RBS II 2005: 232) yäšereü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 160)); 

42 ‘to hit/to beat’ (9.21) bash. (RBS I 2005: 86) huγïu (< tu. (ESTJ 2003: 286)), kaγïu- (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 221));

43 ‘horn’ (4.17) bash. (RBS II 2005: 326) mögöð (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 243));

44 ‘house’ (7.12) bash. (RBS I 2005: 292) öy (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 513)), yort (< tu. (ESTJ 1989: 254));

45 ‘I’ (2.91) ); bash. (RBS II 2005: 673) min (< tu. (Räs 1969: 333b));

46 ‘in’ (12.012): affix of a locative case bash. -da, -de, -ta, -tä (< tu. (Shcherbak 1977: 39, 175));

47 ‘knee’ (4.36)bash. (RBS I 2005: 471) tubïk (< tu. *top ‘orb’ (SFTJ, 1970 : 197));

48 ‘to know’ (17.17) bash. (RBS I 2005: 397) beleü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 137));

49 ‘to laugh’ (16.25) bash. (RBS II 2005: 413) kölöü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 98));

50 ‘leaf’ (8.56) bash. (RBS I 2005: 532) yaprak (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 130));

51 ‘leg’ (4.35) bash. (RBS I 2005: 701) ayak (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 103));

52 ‘liver’ (4.45) bash. (RBS I 2005: 55) bauïr (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 17));

53 ‘long’ (12.57) bash. (RBS I 2005: 282) oðon (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 570));

54 ‘louse’: ‘the head louse’ (3.811), ‘the body louse’(3.8112) bash. (RBS I 2005: 177) bet (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 151));

55 ‘mouth’ (4.24) bash. (RBS II 2005: 332) auïð (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 81));  

56 ‘name’ (18.28) bash. (RBS II 2005: 420) isem (< ar. ism), at (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 198)); 

57 ‘navel’ (4.43) bash. (RBS II 2005: 235) kendek (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 68);

58 ‘neck’ (4.28) bash. (RBS II 2005: 643) muyïn (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 180)); 

59 ‘new’ (14.13) bash. (RBS I 2005: 701)  yaŋï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 124));   

60 ‘night’ (14.42) bash. (RBS I 2005: 704) tön (< tu. *tü̅n ‘night’ (SFTJ, 1970 : 198));

61 ‘nose’ (4.23) bash.(RBS I 2005: 702) tanau (< tu. (Räs 1969: 460b));

62 ‘not’ (24.06) bash. (RBS I 2005: 650) yuk (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 211)); 

63 ‘old’ (14.15) bash. (RBS II 2005: 456) kart, karï (<  tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 314));

64 ‘one’ (13.01 bash. (RBS I 2005: 743) ber (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 146)); 

65 ‘rain’ (1.75) bash. (RBS I 2005: 288) yamγïr (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 57));

66 ‘red’ (15.66) bash. (RBS I 2005: 501) kïðïl (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 194)); 

67 ‘root’ (8.54) bash. (RBS I 2005: 490) tamïr (< tu. (ESTJ 1980: 143));

68 ‘rope’ (9.19) bash. (RBS I 2005: 131) bau(< tu. (ESTJ 1978: 13)), arkan (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 175));

69 ‘to run’ (intransitive) (10.46) bash. (RBS I 2005: 63) yügereü(< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 258));

70 ‘salt’ (5.81) bash. (RBS I 2005: 431) toð (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 288)); 

71 ‘sand’ (1.215) bash. (RBS II 2005: 53) kom (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 133));

72 ‘to say’ (18.22) bash. (RBS II 2005: 389) äyteü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 111)), tieü (< tu. (ESTJ 1980: 221));

73 ‘to see’ (15.51) bash. küreü (RBS I 2005: 146) (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 77));

74 ‘shade/shadow’ (1.63) bash. (RBS II 2005: 494) külägä  (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 96)); 

75 ‘skin/hide’ (4.12 bash. (RBS II 2005: 645) tire (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 207));

76 ‘small’ (12.56)  bash. (RBS I 2005: 545) bäläkäy (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 47));

77 ‘smoke’ (1.83) bash. (RBS I 2005: 308) tötön  (< tu. (Räs, 1969 : 507b));

78 ‘soil’ (1.212) bash. (RBS II 2005: 443) tuprak (< tu. (Räs, 1969 : 489b));

79 ‘to stand’ (12.15) bash. (RBS II 2005: 465) torou (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 296)); 

80 ‘star’ (1.54) bash. (RBS I 2005: 388) yondoð (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 279));

81 ‘stone/rock’ (1.44) bash. (RBS I 2005: 443) taš  (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 167)); 

82 ‘to suck’ (5.16) bash. (RBS II 2005: 436) imeü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 271)), hurïu- (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 311));

83 ‘sweet’ (15.35) bash. (RBS II 2005: 402) tatlï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 162));

84 ‘tail’ (4.18) bash. (RBS II 2005: 599) koyrok (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 114));

85 ‘to take’ (11.13) bash. (RBS I 2005: 103) alïu (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 127)); 

86 ‘thick’ (12.63) bash. (RBS I 2005: 504) kalïn (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 238));

87 ‘thigh’ (4.351) bash. (RBS I 2005: 63) bot (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 280));

88 ‘this’ (24.07) bash. (RBS II 2005: 670) bïl (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 225));  

89 ‘to tie’ (9.16) bash. (RBS I 2005: 334) bäyläü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 13)), taγïu- (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 145));

90 ‘tongue’ (4.26) bash. (RBS II 2005: 674) tel (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 228));

91 ‘tooth’ (4.27) bash. (RBS I 2005: 400) teš (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 242));

92 ‘water’ (1.31) bash. (RBS I 2005: 159) hïu (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 325));

93 ‘what?’ (17.64 bash. (RBS II 2005: 633) ni, nimä (< tu. *nä̅ (SFTJ, 1970 : 195));

94 ‘who?’ (17.68) bash. (RBS I 2005: 512) kem (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 67));

95 ‘wide’ (12.61) bash. (RBS II 2005: 644) kiŋ (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 46));

96 ‘wind’ (1.72) bash. (RBS I 2005: 136) el (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 174));

97 ‘wing’ (4.392) bash. kanat  (RBS I 2005: 511) (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 252));

98 ‘wood’ (1.43) bash. (RBS I 2005: 302) üðaγas(< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 71)); 

99 ‘yesterday’ (14.49) bash. (RBS I 2005: 190) kisä (< tu. (ESTJ 1980: 40));

100 ‘you’ (singular) (2.920) bash. (RBS II 2005: 527) hin (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 232)).

It should be mentioned that synonyms (10 items: 24, 27, 28, 42, 44, 56, 68, 72, 82, 89) are traced in the Leipzig-Jakarta list of Bashkir.

All 100 Leipzig-Jakarta list items of the Bashkir language are of the Turkic origin and only two items (28, 56) are loan-words:  Arabian and Mongol.

In this article we reveal the Leipzig-Jakarta list of Bashkir and our conclusion is that the revealed list of Bashkir is of the Turkic origin and foreign influence is traced in it.

Abbreviations

ar. – Arabian

mo. – Mongolian

tu. – Turkic

ESTJ 1974 – Sevortyan, E., (1974), Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na glasnye, Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1978 – Sevortyan, E., (1978), Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na bukvu "B", (Ed. N. Z. Gadzhieva), Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1980 – Sevortyan, E., (1980), Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na bukvy "V", "G", "D", (Ed. N. Z. Gadzhieva), Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1989 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na bukvy "ǰ", "ZH", "Y", (1989), (Ed. L. S. Levitskaya), Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1997 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie leksicheskie osnovy na bukvy "K", "Q", (1997), Moscow: Yazyki russkoy kultury.

ESTJ 2000 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie leksicheskie osnovy na bukvy "K", (2000), Moscow: Yazyki russkoy kultury.

ESTJ 2003 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie leksicheskie osnovy na bukvy "L", "M", "N", "P", "S", (2003), Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, RAN.

Räs 1969 – Räsäsnen, M., (1969), Versuch einen etymologischen Wörterbuchs der Türksprachen, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.

SFTJ 1970 – Shcherbak, A., (1970), Sravnitelnaya fonetika tyurkskikh yazykov, (Ed. A. N. Kononov), Leningrad: Nauka.

RBS I 2005 – Agishev, I. & A. Gindullina & G. Zaynullina & Z. Ishmukhametov & S. Mirzhanova & Sh. Nafikov & Z. Sirazetdinov & N. Sufyanova & Z. Urazbaeva & Z. Uraksin & R. Khadyeva, (2005), Russko-bashkirskiy slovar. Volume 1 (A—O), (Ed. Z. G. Uraksin), Ufa: Bashkirskaya enciklopediya.

RBS II 2005 – Agishev, I. & A. Gindullina & G. Zaynullina & Z. Ishmukhametov & S. Mirzhanova & Sh. Nafikov & Z. Sirazetdinov & N. Sufyanova & Z. Urazbaeva & Z. Uraksin & R. Khadyeva, (2005), Russko-bashkirskiy slovar. Volume 2 (P—YA), (Ed. Z. G. Uraksin), Ufa: Bashkirskaya enciklopediya.

References

1. Novgorodov, I. & N. Egorov, (2015a), “Ob ustoychivom slovarnom fonde yakutskogo yazyka”, Inostrannye yazyki: Lingvisticheskie i metodicheskie aspekty. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov 30, 240-245.

2. Novgorodov, I. & N. Egorov, (2015b), “Ob ustoychivom slovarnom fonde chuvashskogo yazyka”, Inostrannye yazyki: Lingvisticheskie i metodicheskie aspekty: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov 31, 234-239.

3. Shcherbak, A., (1977), Ocherkiposravnitel'noymorfologiityurkskikhyazykov. Imya, (Ed. S. N. Ivanov), Leningrad: Nauka, 39, 175.

4. Tadmor, U., (2009), “The Leipzig–Jakarta list of basic vocabulary”, Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook, (Ed. Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 68-75.

5. Vserossijskaya perepis naseleniya (2010), http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm

 Published in Актуальные проблемы диалектологии языков народов России: Материалы XV Всероссийской научной конференции. - Уфа, 2015.- 340. Стр. 197-200