About the Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Tatar language

  27 Октябрь 2015

Innokentiy NOVGORODOV

North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk

Albina GAINUTDINOVA

Institute of Language, Literature and Art, Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan Republic, Kazan

About the Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Tatar language*

Аннотация: Установлен устойчивый словарный фонд татарского языка, который восходит к лексике тюркского происхождения, но вместе с тем в нем прослеживается иноязычное влияние.

Abstract: The 100-word Leipzig–Jakarta list of Tatar is revealed. The revealed list of Tatar is of the Turkic origin and foreign influence is traced in it.

Ключевые слова: устойчивый словарный фонд, заимствование, тюркский, арабский, татарский.

Keywords: the most resistant words, loan-word, languages, Turkic, Arabian, Tatar.

 

As it is known the Leipzig–Jakarta list is a 100 word list to test the degree of relationship of languages by comparing words that are resistant to borrowing [4 : 68-75]. The indicated 100 most resistant words are used to establish the relationship among the Turkic languages. In this survey, we reveal the Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Tatar language. The Tatar language is one of the Turkic Kipchak languages spoken by the Tatars (5310649 people according to the latest Russian census [5]) majority of whom are living in the middle and lower reaches of the Volga river. The Tatar language, along with Russian, is the official language of the Republic of Tatarstan. Most of the Russian federal subjects are tied with the Russian federal government by the uniform Federal Treaty, but relations between the government of Tatarstan and the Russian federal government are more complex, and are precisely defined in the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan.

It should be mentioned that we previously came to a conclusion that the Turkic

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*              We sincerely thank the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation for the grant “The most resistant words of the Turkic languages”; this publication was prepared within the framework of the research project supported by the Russian Humanitarian Science Foundation № 14-04-00346.

 

languages are divided into two main groups [1 : 240-245; 2 : 234-239]. The first one is the Yakut and the Kipchak languages, and the second one – the Chuvash and Oghuz languages.

In this survey, the comparative method is used as the main method.

For the convenience of analysis, the Leipzig–Jakarta list was taken from open electronic sources rather than [4 : 68-65] due to the arrangement of the material in the former (e.g., the alphabetical order of vocabulary and a single lexeme for identifying each vocabulary sample).

Before presenting the Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Tatar language, it should be noted that 1 is a number of the Leipzig–Jakarta list item; ‘ant’ – meaning; (3. 817) – index number of World loanword database, available online at http://wold.clld.org/meaning; tat. – abbreviation of the  Tatar language; (TRS I 2007: 703) – indication of a source and its page; kïrmïska – form of a word; (< tu. (ESTJ 2000: 140))  – indication of a word origin,information of a source and its page.

The Leipzig–Jakarta list of the Tatar language is presented below.

1 ‘ant’ (3. 817) tat. (TRS I 2007: 703) kïrmïska (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 140)); 

2 ‘arm’ (4.31), ‘hand’ (4.33) tat. (TRS I 2007: 649) kul (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 37));

3 ‘ash’ (1.84) tat.(TRS I 2007: 628) köl (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 137));

4 ‘back’ (4.19) tat. (TRS I 2007: 117) arkа (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 174));

5 ‘big’ (12.55) tat. (TRS II 2007: 94) olï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 593));

6 ‘bird’ (3.581) tat. (TRS I 2007: 624) koš (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 180));

7 ‘to bite’ (4.58) tat. (TRS II 2007: 368) tešläü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 242));

8 ‘bitter’ (15.37) tat. (TRS I 2007: 150) ačï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 :  89));

9 ‘black’ (15.65)   tat. (TRS II 2007: 532) karа (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 286));

10 ‘blood’ (4.15) tat. (TRS I 2007: 524) kan (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 251));

11 ‘to blow (intransitive)’ (10.38) tat. (TRS I 2007: 467) isü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 553));

12 ‘bone’ (4.16) tat. (TRS II 2007: 255) söyak (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 357));

13 ‘breast’ (4.41) tat. (TRS I 2007: 445, 447) imi (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 271)), imčäk (< tu.);

14 ‘to burn (intransitive)’ (1.852) tat. (TRS II 2007: 713) yanu (< tu. (ESTJ 1989: 112));

15 ‘to carry’ (10.61) tat. (TRS I 2007: 685) küterep yӧtü (yӧrtü)(< tat. < tu. (ESTJ 1980: 86, ESTJ 1989: 229));

16 ‘child (kin term)’ (2.43) tat. (TRS I 2007: 190) bala (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 47));

17 ‘to come’ (10.48) tat. (TRS I 2007: 569) kilü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 14));

18 ‘to crush/to grind’ (5.56) tat. (TRS I 2007: 435, TRS II 2007: 321) izü (< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 235)), tartu- (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 154));

19 ‘to cry/to weep’ (16.37) tat. (TRS I 2007: 370, TRS II 2007: 282) elau (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 79)), sïktau- (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 390));

20 ‘to do/to make’ (9.11) tat. (TRS I 2007: 468, TRS II 2007: 680) itü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 312)), ešläü (< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 395));

21 ‘dog’ (3.61) tat. (TRS II 2007: 673) et (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 385));

22 ‘to drink’ (5.13) tat. (TRS II 2007: 677) ečü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 391));

23 ‘ear’ (4.22) tat. (TRS I 2007: 594) kolak (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 124));

24 ‘to eat’ (5.11) tat. (TRS I 2007: 155) ašau (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 210));

25 ‘egg’ (5.97) tat. (TRS I 2007: 483) yomïrka (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 250));

26 ‘eye’ (4.21) tat. (TRS I 2007: 665) küz (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 60));

27 ‘to fall’ (10.23) tat. (TRS II 2007: 418) töšü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 330)), (TRS I 2007: 368), egïlu (< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 69));

28 ‘far (adverb)’ (12.44) tat. (TRS II 2007: 90, TRS I 2007: 373) ozak (< tu. (ESTJ 1974: 570)), erak (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 286));

29 ‘fire’ (1.81) tat. (TRS II 2007: 485) ut (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 483));

30 ‘fish’ (3.65) tat. (TRS I 2007: 196) balïk (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 59));

31 ‘flesh/meat’ (4.13) tat. (TRS I 2007: 467) it (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 311));

32 ‘fly’ (3.83) tat. (TRS II 2007: 569) čeben (< tu. (Räs, 1969 : 110));

33 ‘to give’ (11.21) tat. (TRS I 2007: 212) birü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 114));

34 ‘to go’ (10.47) tat. (TRS I 2007: 200) baru (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 64));

35 ‘good’ (16.71) tat. (TRS II 2007: 724) yaxšï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 63));

36 ‘hair’ (4.14) tat. (TRS I 2007: 567) čäč (< turk. (ESTJ, 2003 : 216));

37 ‘hard’ (15.74) tat. (TRS I 2007: 547) qatï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 334));

38 ‘he/she/it’ (2.931; 2.932; 2.933) tat. (TRS II 2007: 474) ul (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 444));

39 ‘to hear’ (15.41) tat. (TRS I 2007: 472) išetü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 318));

40 ‘heavy’ (15.81) tat. (TRS I 2007: 33) avïr (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 85));

41 ‘to hide’ (12.27) tat. (TRS II 2007: 727) yašerü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 160)); 

42 ‘to hit/to beat’ (9.21) tat. (TRS II 2007: 263) sugu (< tu. (ESTJ 2003: 286));

43 ‘horn’ (4.17) tat. (TRS II 2007: 57) mögez (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 243));

44 ‘house’ (7.12) tat. (TRS I 2007: 485, TRS II 2007: 113)) yort (< tu. (ESTJ 1989: 254)), öy (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 513));

45 ‘I’ (2.91) tat. (TRS II 2007: 44) min (< tu. (Räs 1969: 333b));

46 ‘in’ (12.012): affix of a locative case tat. -da, -dä, -ta, -tä (< tu. [3: 39, 175]);

47 ‘knee’ (4.36)tat. (TRS II 2007: 353) tez (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 336));  

48 ‘to know’ (17.17) tat. (TRS I 2007: 227) belü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 137));

49 ‘to laugh’ (16.25) tat. (TRS I 2007: 630) kölü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 98));  

50 ‘leaf’ (8.56) tat. (TRS II 2007: 724) yafrak (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 130));

51 ‘leg’ (4.35) tat. (TRS I 2007: 160) ayak (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 103));

52 ‘liver’ (4.45) tat. (TRS I 2007: 181) bavïr (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 17));

53 ‘long’ (12.57) tat. (TRS II 2007: 91) ozïn (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 570));

54 ‘louse’: ‘the head louse’ (3.811), ‘the body louse’(3.8112) tat. (TRS I 2007: 236) bet (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 151));

55 ‘mouth’ (4.24) tat. (TRS I 2007: 27) avïz (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 81));  

56 ‘name’ (18.28) tat. (TRS I 2007: 136, 463) at (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 198)), isem (< ar.);

57 ‘navel’ (4.43) tat. (TRS I 2007: 559) kendek (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 68);

58 ‘neck’ (4.28) tat. (TRS II 2007: 61) muyen (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 180)); 

59 ‘new’ (14.13) tat. (TRS I 2007: 714) yaŋa (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 124));   

60 ‘night’ (14.42) tat. (TRS II 2007: 406) tön (< tu. *tü̅n ‘night’ (SFTJ, 1970 : 198));

61 ‘nose’ (4.23) tat. (TRS I 2007: 253) borïn (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 269));   

62 ‘not’ (24.06) tat. (TRS II 2007: 685) yuk (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 211)); 

63 ‘old’ (14.15) tat. (TRS I 2007: 540) kart (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 314));

64 ‘one’ (13.01) tat. (TRS I 2007: 227) ber (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 146)); 

65 ‘rain’ (1.75) tat. (TRS II 2007: 715) yaŋgïr(< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 57));

66 ‘red’ (15.66) tat. (TRS II 2007: 693) kïzïl (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 194)); 

67 ‘root’ (8.54) tat. (TRS II 2007: 309) tamïr (< tu. (ESTJ 1980: 143));

68 ‘rope’ (9.19) tat. (TRS I 2007: 208) bau (< tu. (ESTJ 1978: 13)); 

69 ‘to run’ (intransitive) (10.46) tat. (TRS I 2007: 489) yögerü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 258));

70 ‘salt’ (5.81) tat. (TRS II 2007: 385) toz (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 288)); 

71 ‘sand’ (1.215) tat. (TRS II 2007: 598) kom (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 133));

72 ‘to say’ (18.22) tat. (TRS II 2007: 170) äytü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 111)),  diyü (< tu. (ESTJ 1980: 221));

73 ‘to see’ (15.51) tat. (TRS I 2007: 683) kürü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 77)); 74 ‘shade/shadow’ (1.63) tat. (TRS I 2007: 672) külägä (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 96)); 

75 ‘skin/hide’ (4.12) tat. (TRS II 2007: 381) tire (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 207));

76 ‘small’ (12.56)  tat. (TRS I 2007: 563, 219) kečkäne (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 75)), bäläkäy (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 47));

77 ‘smoke’ (1.83) tat. (TRS II 2007: 415) töten (< tu. (Räs, 1969 : 507b));

78 ‘soil’ (1.212) tat. (TRS II 2007: 443) tufrak (< tu. (Räs, 1969 : 489b));

79 ‘to stand’ (12.15) tat. (TRS II 2007: 393) toru (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 296)); 

80 ‘star’ (1.54) tat. (TRS II 2007: 478) yoldïz (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 279));

81 ‘stone/rock’ (1.44) tat. (TRS II 2007: 328)  taš (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 167)); 

82 ‘to suck’ (5.16) tat. (TRS I 2007: 447) imü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 271));

83 ‘sweet’ (15.35) tat. (TRS II 2007: 328) tatlï (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 162));

84 ‘tail’ (4.18) tat. (TRS I 2007: 592) koyrïk (< tu. (ESTJ, 2000 : 114));

85 ‘to take’ (11.13) tat. (TRS I 2007: 89) alu (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 127));

86 ‘thick’ (12.63) tat. (TRS I 2007: 521) kalïn (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 238));

87 ‘thigh’ (4.351) tat. (TRS I 2007: 254) bot (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 280));

88 ‘this’ (24.07) tat. (TRS I 2007: 262) bu (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 225));  

89 ‘to tie’ (9.16) tat. (TRS I 2007: 217) bäyläü (< tu. (ESTJ, 1978 : 13));

90 ‘tongue’ (4.26) tat. (TRS II 2007: 355) tel (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 228));

91 ‘tooth’ (4.27) tat. (TRS II 2007: 367) teš (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 242));

92 ‘water’ (1.31) tat. (TRS II 2007: 262) su (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 325));

93 ‘what?’ (17.64) tat. (TRS I 2007: 73) närsä (< tu. *nä̅ (SFTJ, 1970 : 195));

94 ‘who?’ (17.68) tat. (TRS II 2007: 558) kem (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 67));

95 ‘wide’ (12.61) tat. (TRS I 2007: 573) kiŋ (< tu. (ESTJ, 1980 : 46));

96 ‘wind’ (1.72) tat. (TRS I 2007: 293) ǰil (< tu. (ESTJ, 1989 : 174));

97 ‘wing’ (4.392) tat. (TRS I 2007: 524) kanat (< tu. (ESTJ, 1997 : 252));

98 ‘wood’ (1.43) tat. (TRS I 2007: 39) agač (< tu. (ESTJ, 1974 : 71)); 

99 ‘yesterday’ (14.49) tat. (TRS I 2007: 586) kičä (< tu. (ESTJ 1980: 40));

100 ‘you’ (singular) (2.920) tat. (TRS I 2007: 238) sin (< tu. (ESTJ, 2003 : 232)).

First of all, it should be mentioned that synonyms (8 items: 18, 19, 20, 27, 28, 56, 72, 76) are traced in the Leipzig-Jakarta list of Tatar.

All 100 Leipzig-Jakarta list items of the Tatar language are of the Turkic origin and only one item (56) is the Arabian loan-word.

In this article we reveal the Leipzig-Jakarta list of Tatar and our conclusion is that the revealed list of Tatar is of the Turkic origin and foreign influence is traced in it.

Abbreviations

ar. – Arabian

tu. – Turkic

ESTJ 1974 – Sevortyan, E., (1974), Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na glasnye, Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1978 – Sevortyan, E., (1978), Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na bukvu "B", (Ed. N. Z. Gadzhieva), Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1980 – Sevortyan, E., (1980), Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na bukvy "V", "G", "D", (Ed. N. Z. Gadzhieva), Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1989 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie osnovy na bukvy "ǰ", "ZH", "Y", (1989), (Ed. L. S. Levitskaya), Moscow: Nauka.

ESTJ 1997 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie leksicheskie osnovy na bukvy "K", "Q", (1997), Moscow: Yazyki russkoy kultury.

ESTJ 2000 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie leksicheskie osnovy na bukvy "K", (2000), Moscow: Yazyki russkoy kultury.

ESTJ 2003 – Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskie i mezhtyurkskie leksicheskie osnovy na bukvy "L", "M", "N", "P", "S", (2003), Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, RAN.

Räs 1969 – Räsäsnen, M., (1969), Versuch einen etymologischen Wörterbuchs der Türksprachen, Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura.

SFTJ 1970 – Shcherbak, A., (1970), Sravnitelnaya fonetika tyurkskikh yazykov, (Ed. A. N. Kononov), Leningrad: Nauka.

TRS I 2007 – Tatarsko-russkiy slovar. Volume 1 (A – L), (2007), Kazan: Magarif.

TRS II 2007 – Tatarsko-russkiy slovar. Volume 1 (M – YA), (2007), Kazan: Magarif.

References

1. Novgorodov, I. & N. Egorov, (2015a), “Ob ustoychivom slovarnom fonde yakutskogo yazyka”, Inostrannye yazyki: Lingvisticheskie i metodicheskie aspekty. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov 30, 240-245.

2. Novgorodov, I. & N. Egorov, (2015b), “Ob ustoychivom slovarnom fonde chuvashskogo yazyka”, Inostrannye yazyki: Lingvisticheskie i metodicheskie aspekty: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov 31, 234-239.

3. Shcherbak, A., (1977), Ocherkiposravnitel'noymorfologiityurkskikhyazykov. Imya, (Ed. S. N. Ivanov), Leningrad: Nauka, 39, 175.

4. Tadmor, U., (2009), “The Leipzig–Jakarta list of basic vocabulary”, Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook, (Ed. Martin Haspelmath & Uri Tadmor), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 68-75.

5. Vserossijskaya perepis naseleniya (2010), http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm

 Published in Сохранение и развитие языков и культур в поликультурном и поликонфессиональном обществе: мировой опыт и современные технологии: Материалы международной научно-практической конференции  (Казань, 14-16 октябрь, 2015). – Казань: Изд-во Казан. ун-та, 2015.  – С. 137-140.